02 October 2018

Nuitka this week #8

Public / Private CI / Workflow


I wrote this as part of a discussion recently, and I think it makes sense to share it here. This is a lot text though, feel free to skip forward.

Indeed I have a private repo, where I push and only private CI picks up. Based on Buildbot, I run many more compilations, basically around the clock on all of my computers, to find regressions from new optimization or codegen changes, and well UI changes too.

Public CI offerings like Travis are not aimed at allowing this many compilations. It will be a while before public cloud infrastructure will be donated to Nuitka, although I see it happening some time in the future. This leaves developers with the burden to run tests on their own hardware, and never enough. Casual contributors will never be able to do it themselves.

My scope is running the CPython test suites on Windows and Linux. These are the adapted 26, 27, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37 suites, and also to get even more errors covered, they are ran with mismatching Python versions, so a lot of exceptions are raised. Often running the 36 tests with 37 and vice versa will extend the coverage, because of the exceptions being raise.

On Windows I compile with and without debug mode, x86 and x64, and it’s kind of getting too much. For Linux I have 2 laptops in use, and an ARM CuBox bought from your donations, there it’s working better, esp. due to ccache being used everywhere, although recent investigations show room for improvement there as well.

For memory usage I still compile mercurial and observe the memory it used in addition to comparing the mercurial tests to expected outputs its test suite gives. It’s a sad day when Mercurial tests find changes in behavior, and luckily that has been rare. Running the Mercurial test suite gives some confidence in the thing not corrupting data it works with without knowing.

Caching the CPython outputs of tests to compare against is something I am going to make operational these days, trying to make things ever faster. There is no point to re-run tests with Python, just to get at its output, which will typically not change at all.

But for the time being, ccache.exe and clcache.exe seem to have done wonders for Windows too, but I will want to investigate some more to avoid unnecessary cache misses.


As for my workflow with Nuitka, I often tend to let some commits settle in my private repo only until they become trusted. Other times I will make bigger changes and put them out to factory immediately, because it will be hard to split up the changes later, so putting them out makes it easier.

I am more conservative with factory right after telling people to try something there. But also I break it on purpose, just trying out something. I really consider it a private branch for interacting with me or public CI. I do not recommend to use it, and it’s like a permanent pull request of mine that is not ever going to be finished.

Then on occasions I am making a sorting of all commits on factory and split it into some things that become hotfixes, some things that become current pre-release, and other things that will remain in that proving ground. That is why I typically make hotfix and pre-release at the same times. The git flow suggests doing that and it’s easy, so why not. As a bonus, develop is then practically stable at nearly all times too, with hardly any regressions.

I do however normally not take things as hotfixes that are on develop already, I hate the duplication of commits. Hotfixes must be small and risk free, and easy to put out, when there is any risk, it definitely will be on develop. Nuitka stable typically covers nearly all grounds already. No panic needed to add missing stuff and break others.

Hunting bugs with bisect

For me the git bisect is very important. My private commit history is basically a total mess and worthless, but on factory I am making very nice organized commits that I will frequently amend, even for the random PyLint cleanup. This allows me when e.g. one test suddenly says “segfault” on Windows to easily find the change that triggers it, look at C code difference, and spot the bug introduced, then amend the commit and be done with it.

It’s amazing how much time this can save. My goal is to always have a workable state which is supposed to pass all tests. Obviously I cannot prove it for every commit, but when I know it to not be the case, I tend to make rebases. At times I have been tempted and followed up on backward amending develop and even stable.

I am doing that to be sure to have that bisect ability, but fortunately it’s rare that kind of bug occurs, and I try not to do it.

Experimental Changes

As with recent changes, I sometimes make changes with the isExperimental() marker, activating breaking changes only gradually. The C bool type code generation has been there for months in a barely useful form, until it became more polished, and always guarded with a switch, until one day for 0.6 finally I changed it, and made the necessary fixes retroactively before that switch, to make it work while that was still in factory.

Then I will remove the experimental code. I feel it’s very important and even ideal to be able to always compare outputs to a fully working solution. I am willing to postpone some cleanups until later date as a price, but when then something in my mind tells me again “This cannot possibly have ever worked”… a command line flag away, I have the answer to compare, plus, that includes extra changes happened in the meantime, they don’t add noise to diff outputs of generated C code for example.

Then looking at that diff, I can tell where the unwanted effect is, and fix all the things, and that way find bugs much faster.

Even better, if I decide to make a cleanup action as part of making a change more viable to execute, then I get to execute it on stable grounds, covered by the full test suite. I can complete that cleanup, e.g. using variable identifier objects instead of mere strings was needed to make “heap generators” more workable. But I was able to put that one to active before “heap generators” was ever fully workable, and complete it, and actually reap some of its benefits already.


Obviously this takes a lot of hardware and CPU to be able to compile this much Python code on a regular basis. And I really wish I could add one of the new AMD Threadripper 2 to the mix. Anybody donating one to me? Yes I know, I am only dreaming. But it would really help the cause.

Milestone Release

So the 0.6 is out, and already a hotfix that addresses mostly use cases of people that didn’t work. More people seemed to have tried out 0.6.0 and as a result is going to cover a few corner cases. So far I have not encountered a single regression of 0.6.0, but instead it contained ones for 0.5.33 which did have one that was not easy to fix.

So that went really smooth.

UI rework

The UI needs more work still. Specifically that packages do not automatically include all stuff below them and have to be specified by file path instead of by name, is really annoying to me.

But I had delayed 0.6 for some UI work, and the quirks are to remain some. I will work on these things eventually.


So I updated the website to state that PyStone is now 312% faster, from a number that was very old. I since then ran it with an updated version for Python3, and it’s much less there. That is pretty sad.

I will be looking into that for 0.6.1 release, or I will have to update the wording to provide 2 numbers there, because it seems for Python3 performance with Nuitka it might be misleading.

Something with unicode strings and in-place operations is driving me crazy. Nuitka is apparently slower for that, and I can’t point where that is happening exactly. It seems internally unicode objects are maybe put into a different state from some operations, which then making in-place extending in realloc fail more often, but I cannot know yet.

Inplace Operations

So more work has been put into those, adding more specialization, and esp. also applying them for module variables as well. CPython can do that, and actually is giving itself a hard time about it, and Nuitka should be doing this much clever with its more static knowledge.

But I cannot tell you how much scratching my head was wasted debugging that. I was totally stupid about how I approached that, looking from the final solution, it was always easy. Just not for me apparently.

New use cases

Talked about those above. So the top level logging module of your own was working fine in accelerated mode, but for standalone it failed and used the one from standard library instead. That kind of shadowing happened because Nuitka was going from module objects to their names and back to objects, which are bad in case of duplicates. That is fixed for develop, and one of those risk cases, where it cannot be a hotfix because it touched too much.

Then pure Python3 packages need not have __init__.py and so far that was best working for sub-packages, but after hotfix, now it will also work for the main module you compile to be that empty.

Tcl/Tk Standalone

So instructions have been provided how to properly make that work for Python standalone on Windows. I have yet to live up to my promise and make Nuitka automatically include the necessary files. I hope to do it for 0.6.1 though.

Caching Examined

So I am looking at ccache on Linux right now, and found e.g. that it was reporting that gcc --version was called a lot at startup of Scons and then g++ --version once. The later is particularly stupid, because we are not going to use g++ normally, except if gcc is really old and does not support C11. So in case a good one was found, lets disable that version query and not do it.

And for the gcc version output, monkey patching scons to a version of getting that output that caches the result, removes those unnecessary forks.

So ccache is being called less frequently, and actually these --version outputs appears to actually take measurable time. It’s not dramatic, but ccache was apparently getting locks, and that’s worth avoiding by itself.

That said, the goal is for ccache and clcache to make them both report their effectiveness of cache usage after the end of a test suite run. That way I am hoping to notice and be able to know, if caching is used to its full effect.


I continue to be very active there. I put out a poll about the comment system, and disabling Disqus comments as a result, I will focus on Twitter for web site comments too now.

Follow @kayhayen

And lets not forget, having followers make me happy. So do re-tweets.

Adding Twitter more prominently to the web site is something that is also going to happen.

Help Wanted

If you are interested, I am tagging issues help wanted and there is a bunch, and very likely at least one you can help with.

Nuitka definitely needs more people to work on it.


Working on the 0.6.1 release, attacking more in-place add operations as a first goal, and now turning to binary operations, I am trying to shape how using different helper functions to different object types looks like. And to gain performance without C types. But ultimately the same issue will arise there, what to do with mixed input types.

My desire is for in-place operations to fully catch up with CPython, as these can easily loose a lot of performance. Closure variables and their cells are another target to pick on, and I feel they ought to be next after module ones are now working, because also their solution ought to be very similar. Then showing that depending on target storage, local, closure, or module, is then faster in all cases would be a goal for the 0.6.1 release.

This feels not too far away, but we will see. I am considering next weekend for release.


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